Opening variants –
The respective functional and aesthetic design requirements can be met by means of the different opening types of the windows and doors. Depending on the situation, special conditions in the building structure or legal regulations require certain types of opening. Elsewhere, the user is free to use elements according to their own wishes and needs.
Historically, windows have always had the largest variety of opening types. These are influenced by the position of the window, the amount of space available and the use of the building. In times of increasing density, for example, it is important that as little space as possible is lost due to the type of opening. This is why sliding elements, for example, are becoming increasingly popular.
1. Tilt-and-turn windows
Tilt-and-turn windows are the most widely used variants in Europe. They are usually used to open a window inwards, the whole sash to one side or the other, and by moving the handle further, to tilt the window with an opening at the top.
2. Top-hung window
With a top-hung window, only the flap opening type is possible. In contrast to a bottom-hung window, the resulting opening is always at the bottom of a top-hung window.
3. Vertical pivot window
With a pivot window, the window only rotates on its own vertically mounted axis of rotation when opened.
4. Projected top-hung windows
Projected top-hung windows are top-hung windows that can be opened outwards. The window sash sinks slightly when opened and can then be folded outwards.
5. Horizontal pivot window
With a horizontal pivot window, the sash rotates on its own axis when opened, with a horizontal axle bearing.
6. Sliding windows / lift-and-slide windows
With sliding windows, one or more window sashes are movable and can be moved to the side or upwards within the frame. With a lift-and-slide window, the sash is first lifted, then pushed to the side.
7. Folding sliding window
The folding sliding window consists of several window sashes, which are connected to each other by hinges. They allow the window to be opened almost across the entire width.
Doors are functional interfaces that simultaneously separate what they connect. They can give entrances and passageways their own face and, depending on how they work, shape the type of passageway. In addition to the various materials and fillings, the opening types, which are differentiated by Jansen as follows, contribute to this:
1. Side-hung doors
The side-hung door is the most common door. It is attached to the side and can be swivelled inwards or outwards from the normal position (closed).
2. Swing doors
Swing door hinges on special frames make it possible to swing these doors both inwards and outwards. They are particularly suitable for high-frequency passageways.
3. Pivot doors
Pivot doors differ from the classic side door hinges, replacing the standard fastenings with pivot hinges. The wing axle has been offset and the pivot hinges are arranged on the upper and lower frame. The doors can be mounted centrally or off-centre and can be pivoted. This means that even very large door leaves can be used.
4. Sliding doors
For sliding doors, there are various more detailed designations depending on the opening option, such as lift-and-slide doors, slide-and-lift doors and parallel tilt-and-slide doors. Sliding doors may consist only of movable elements or also of fixed and movable elements. Depending on the type of arrangement, a distinction is made between different schemes (A, B, C etc.).
5. Folding sliding doors
Folding sliding doors generally run along rails and can result in very large openings due to the fact that the folding elements can be pushed together on one side of the opening and can be stowed away at the side to save space. The more leaves that can be assembled together, the larger the openings that can be created. However, ease of movement and safety have to be guaranteed.
6. Anti-finger-trap doors
Anti-finger-trap doors offer no alternative opening variant other than the one mentioned above; their specific function also refers to the opening and closing of the doors: With anti-finger-trap doors, protection in the gap between the frame and leaf minimises the risk of fingers getting trapped there. This is particularly relevant in kindergartens and schools, for example. Jansen offers this function in various systems and with additional properties such as fire protection.
Fixed glazing / partition wall
Glass partition walls are strong design elements that visually connect rooms that need to be separated due to sounds, smells or functions. At the same time, they create transparency that ensures brightness and openness in the interior. For external walls, fixed glazing offers comparable possibilities with simultaneous consideration of heat insulation values and other safety features. They are also accompanying elements on doors or windows – at the side, top or bottom.